The effects of ginseng in fatigued night nurses were assessed by self rating scales for competence, mood and bodily feeling, objective tests of psychophysiological performance, hematological and biochemical tests. The results were compared to placebo and normal daytime work. Night duty impaired performance in all mood scales and most of the bodily feeling scales. Ginseng improved the self rating scales for competence, mood and performance in one of the psychophysical tests. Some variables of bodily feeling improved and others were rated as worse on ginseng. Compared to placebo, ginseng had no effect on the blood tests.
Methods: A case-control study, nested within a cohort of 44,835 nurses educated between 1914 and 1980 was performed, based on a registry of all Norwegian nurses. Four controls were individually matched by year of birth to each of 537 breast cancer cases that occurred during the period 1960-1982. The reconstruction of work history and number of years with night work for each nurse was based on information from the nurse registry, and data from three censuses. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for total duration of work as a nurse and parity. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: The adjusted OR of breast cancer among nurses who worked nights for 30 or more years was 2.21 (CI 1.10-4.45) compared with those who did not work nights after graduation from nursing school (p(trend) = 0.01).
Having been reassigned to the unenviable night shift at the New York City morgue where he works, mild-mannered Chuck Lumley (Winkler) struggles to get along with his new assistant, the wacky and exuberant Bill Blazejowski (Keaton, in his Star-Making Role). Meanwhile, Chuck's neighbor Belinda Keaton (Long) is a Hooker with a Heart of Gold who's struggling to get along since her pimp was murdered. Chuck's Good Samaritan efforts to help Belinda and Bill, and their penchant for Zany Schemes, eventually lead to them running a prostitution ring out of the morgue. Hilarity Ensues.
Espenshade first started with the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center at the Rehabilitation Hospital, located in Elizabethtown at that time, after earning her nursing degree at Lancaster General Hospital School of Nursing. There, she worked her way from night shift change nurse to assistant nurse manager, earning her bachelor of science degree at the College of St. Francis while she worked. In 1991, the Rehabilitation Unit moved to the new south addition of the main hospital in Hershey.
\\\"I was working in the pediatric ICU of Bexar County Hospital from 1976-1981,\\\" said Pendergraph, who is now 59 and living in Houston. \\\"I began as a clinician and eventually became a shift supervisor. Besides taking care of patients, my job was to give patient assignments to the nurses.\\\"
\\\"Our infant mortality rate was much higher in 1981 than it was in previous years,\\\" Pendergraph said. \\\"During one of the midnight shifts the nurses and I got together. We had all noticed the increased deaths.\\\"
Background: Night shift work may disrupt the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin, resulting in increased breast cancer risk, possibly through increased reproductive hormone levels. We investigated whether night shift work is associated with decreased levels of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the primary metabolite of melatonin, and increased urinary reproductive hormone levels.
Conclusions: These results indicate that night shift workers have substantially reduced 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels during night work and daytime sleep and that levels remain low even when a night shift worker sleeps at night.
Upon the second month's positive ovulation reading (Ov), urine collections were scheduled for the early to mid-luteal phase (Ov + 2 days through Ov + 10 days) and coincided with days when at least 2 consecutive shifts were to be worked, followed by an off-night (for the night shift workers) or at least one day shift worked, followed by a night of sleep (for the day shift workers). Before urine collection, the interviewer met with the participant to provide supplies and instructions for the collections and to administer a brief in-person interview to collect a detailed employment history, demographic information, reproductive and menstrual history, medical history, physical activity, and current hormone and medication use.
Of the 471 women determined to be eligible, 447 (94.9%) agreed to participate. Of these, 124 participants did not complete data collection, primarily because they became ineligible before data collection (n = 103) or withdrew from the study (n = 21). Of the remaining 323 participants who consented and completed data collection, 172 were night shift workers and 151 were day shift workers. There were a total of 6 missed sample collections among the participants who completed the study.
Participants were 20 to 49 years old, with a mean age of 34.5 years for night shift workers and 34.9 years for day shift workers. Table 1 displays distributions of the primary covariates used in the analysis, as well as ovulation status, by day and night shift participants. Night and day shift participants were similar with respect to BMI (mean = 24.4 and 23.6 kg/m2, night vs. day shift), although night shift workers were more likely to be in the highest BMI category considered for eligibility. Night and day shift participants were similar with respect to number of pregnancies, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption, with the exception that, among drinkers, night shift workers consumed slightly more alcohol than day shift workers (mean = 2.6 and 1.8 drinks, night vs. day shift). Day shift participants were slightly more likely to use medications classified as psychotherapeutics, but use was very similar for both groups in most other medication categories. Using the algorithm described above for determining anovulatory cycles, 23 night shift and 26 day shift participants had an anovulatory cycle during data collection.
Results from regression analyses of melatonin and reproductive hormone levels during day sleep (night shift workers), relative to night sleep (day shift workers), all participants (n = 151 day and 170 night shift workers)
Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were decreased in the night shift workers during their off-night of sleep (mean = 27.7 ng/mg creatinine), relative to day shift workers during their nighttime sleep (Table 3). Nocturnal 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels in the night shift workers were approximately 42% lower than those of day shift workers (P
Results from regression analyses of melatonin and reproductive hormone levels during nighttime sleep, night shift workers vs. day shift workers, all participants (n = 151 day and 172 night shift workers)
Results from regression analyses of nocturnal melatonin and reproductive hormone levels during nighttime work (night shift worker), relative to nighttime sleep (day shift worker), all participants (n = 151 day and 170 night shift workers)
Results regarding analyses within the night shift workers are presented in Tables 5 and 6. Daytime sleep was associated with statistically significantly decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and increased reproductive hormone levels, relative to nighttime sleep on off-nights (Table 5). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were approximately 38% lower, and FSH, LH, and E1C levels were approximately 51%, 46%, and 8% higher, respectively, during daytime sleep, relative to nighttime sleep on off-nights. Nighttime work was also associated with statistically significantly decreased 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels and increased reproductive hormone levels, relative to nighttime sleep on off-nights (Table 6). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were approximately 47% lower, and FSH, LH, and E1C levels were 23%, 21%, and 13% higher, respectively, during nighttime work, relative to nighttime sleep on off-nights.
Results from regression analyses of nocturnal melatonin and reproductive hormone levels during daytime sleep, relative to nighttime sleep, all night shift workers (n = 172 night and 170 day sleep measurements) 076b4e4f54